The fire safety system of an object is a complex and very capacious notion. It includes not only equipment of the object with technical means of fire prevention and fire fighting, but also a whole list of measures, the application of which allows to avoid consequences of the terrible disaster or to prevent it.
The filling of the fire safety system
The system is provided by three subsystems:
- fire prevention. Preventive measures include impregnation of structural elements with flame retardants, installation of barriers, use of finishing materials with special characteristics especially in rooms with a high fire risk factor;
- fire protection, which includes both automatic fire-extinguishing installations and elementary fire-fighting measures such as sand, bugles, buckets and spades. The most important element of this subsystem is timely and proper evacuation;
- administrative measures.
The main components of the fire safety system are:
- alarm and notification systems must be installed at all facilities where a fire may cause harm to health or life;
- fire extinguishing.
The sequence of interaction of these components is extremely important. It should occur in this order, since the most important thing in any emergency or abnormal situation is the preservation of life and health of people.
The activation of the fire safety system is understood to mean the sequential execution of the following processes:
- The alarm is triggered when thermal or smoke fire detectors, which respond to exceeding the threshold value of the controlled factor. Signals from the detectors go to the control panel, which controls the start of other system components.
- The notification system is started: a fire siren informs of the need to evacuate, the evacuation routes are marked with illuminated signs along the entire route. Direct management of the evacuation is entrusted to the employees responsible for fire safety and the management of the facility.
- Ventilation is turned off, equipment is stopped.
- no elevators may be used during the evacuation, so they are moved to the first floor and blocked there with the doors open.
- only after that are the fire extinguishing systems turned on.
Only when the fire safety system is maintained in working order is it possible to minimize the consequences of a fire, as they say, “get out with little blood”. That is why it is so important to comply with the rules of checking the performance of systems, to conduct maintenance carefully, not “just for show”.
Organizational and technical measures to train personnel to use primary fire fighting means, instructions on the rules of conduct during evacuations and fires should also be conducted in fact, not on paper and should end with examinations. All the activities carried out should be recorded in special logs.
Purpose of the fire safety systems
The purpose of the fire safety system is to:
- to prevent the probability of fire outbreak;
- to provide safety of people;
- protection of material assets;
- rapid and complete suppression of fire, eliminating the causes of fire, creating conditions for the non-proliferation of fire.
The main purpose of the fire safety system is to solve problems and problems associated with fire suppression, safety and rescue of people. In the absence of extreme situations, they should keep the entrusted object under control, constantly be on duty and in a state of full readiness.
What are the elements that make up the fire safety system
Fire safety of an object includes the following elements:
- fire alarm system. It includes heat, smoke or other fire detectors, connection cables, a command center for processing the information received from the detectors;
- means of notification of people who are on the site;
- unobstructed evacuation, maintenance of the evacuation routes;
- sufficient quantity, quality and working condition of the primary fire extinguishing equipment;
- automatic fire-extinguishing systems;
- possibility of timely and maximally complete smoke evacuation;
- fire curtains.
Maintenance of fire alarm systems
Fire safety system of an object will only be effective and really help to avoid severe consequences of a fire if the following conditions are met:
- It is necessary to know the exact layout and number of primary fire extinguishing equipment.
- The number of fire-fighting means must provide effective fire suppression.
- All fire-fighting equipment, including automatic systems, must be kept in perfect technical condition.
- Extinguishing agent channels shall be known and maintained in good working order.
- There should be a constant supply of extinguishing agent that can operate the systems at maximum capacity for the estimated period of time required to suppress the fire.
The most important condition for maintaining the fire suppression system in good working order throughout the period of operation is the timely maintenance of the automatic systems.
It includes the following measures:
- monitoring the technical condition of all parts of the system through external inspection and instrumental monitoring;
- carrying out preventive and prophylactic measures in accordance with the regulations;
- timely elimination of effects of external factors on the system elements;
- identification and elimination of causes of false alarms;
- Carrying out examination of equipment to determine its suitability for further operation or the need for replacement.
Fire safety of an object is not only a competent technical solution, but a whole complex of legal, administrative, social and economic measures.
Ensuring fire safety is regulated by the Federal Law “On Fire Safety”.
The fire safety system of the facility primarily includes automatic fire extinguishing installations, alarms and notification devices.
The functions of automatic fire-extinguishing installations include:
- timely detection of sources of fire and smoke;
- generating a signal of an emergency situation on the basis of the readings of sensors and fire detectors;
- warning of people in the building about the danger and informing about the evacuation routes;
- actuation of fire-extinguishing devices;
- smoke protection.
To perform these functions, the automatic system shall be equipped with:
Fire extinguishing agent in the required quantity and of adequate quality to eliminate the fire. The amount of extinguishing agent shall be determined by calculation for each room;
A device for monitoring the operation of the unit to prevent abnormal operation;
duplicating devices for manual operation of installations not equipped with sprinklers, and not having thermal locks reacting to an excessive increase in temperature.
The requirements for fire safety of the facility are governed by the Federal Law “Technical Regulations on Fire Safety Requirements”.
Fire safety of the facility is technically ensured by alarm and warning systems and automatic fire extinguishing installations.
Installation of technical systems must be carried out in strict accordance with the approved project.
The moment of activation of the fire-extinguishing installations must be delayed until the complete evacuation of people from the object. This period is determined by calculation for each room of the facility. Evacuation routes and safe zones shall be equipped with smoke protection equipment.
The use of an extinguishing agent shall suppress rather than facilitate the spread of fire due to a spill or other dispersal of combustible substances and materials.
When substances of incomplete combustion are ignited, the possibility of subsequent ignition, which is possible by the confluence of adverse factors, shall be eliminated.
When designing the system at the facility, provision shall be made for ways to remove the extinguishing agent from the premises after the fire has been extinguished.
The fire alarm system shall form a light and sound signal to the dispatcher’s desk, eliminating the possibility of ignoring it.
Placement of smoke detectors, fire detectors and other necessary devices shall be in strict accordance with Code of Practice “Fire alarm systems and automation of fire protection systems. Standards and Design Rules”, so they can instantly react to exceed the threshold of any controlled fire factor. It is strictly prohibited to obstruct the area of detectors with foreign objects and structures.
A fire safety system should have a basic elements and functions, include required components and components functions. Basic elements should include an automatic fire detection and alarm system, a fire suppression system, and a means of communication between the fire safety systems. The purpose of a fire safety system is to protect people and property from fire. The system should be designed to meet the specific requirements of the building and the occupants.